Medical Statistics
at a Glance

Book contents
Buy online
Others in this series

Further Reading

Handling data
Sampling and estimation
Study design
Hypothesis testing
Basic techniques for analysing data
Additional topics
Statistical tables
Statistical software

Handling data

  1. Barzi, F. & Woodward, M. (2004) Imputations of missing values in practice: results from imputations of serum cholesterol in 28 cohort studies. Am. J. Epidemiol., 160, 34-45.
  2. Engels, J.M. & Diehr, P. (2003) Imputation of missing longitudinal data: a comparison of methods. J. Clin. Epidemiol., 56, 968-976.

General books about data and statistics

  1. Altman, D.G. (1990) Practical Statistics for Medical Research. CRC Press.
  2. Armitage, P. & Colton, T. (eds) (2005) Encyclopedia of Biostatistics 2nd edn. Wiley.
  3. Barnett, V. & Lewis, T. (1994) Outliers in Statistical Data. 3rd edn. Wiley.
  4. Bland, M. (2000) An Introduction fo Medical Statistics. 3rd edn. Oxford University Press.
  5. Campbell, M.J. & Machin, D. (1999) Medical Statistics. A Commonsense Approach. 3rd edn. Wiley.
  6. Cohen, A & Posner, J (2000) A Guide to Clinical Drug Research, 2nd edn. Kluwer.
  7. Everitt, B.S. (1995) The Cambridge Dictionary of Statistics in the Medical Sciences. Cambridge University Press.
  8. Greenfield T (1996) Research Methods - Guidance for Postgraduates Arnold
  9. Kirkwood B & Sterne J (2003) Essential Medical Statistics. 2nd Edn Blackwell Science
  10. Lindsey KL (1999) Revealing Statistical Principles Arnold
  11. Petrie A, Bulman JS & Osborn JF (2002) Further Statistics in Dentistry British Dental Journal
  12. Petrie, A. & Watson, P. (1999) Statistics for Veterinary and Animal Science. Blackwell Science.
  13. Pereira-Maxwell, F. (1998) A-Z of Medical Statistics. A Companion for Critical Appraisal. Arnold.

Different distributions

  1. Evans, M., Hastings, N. & Peacock, J.B. (1993) Statistical Distributions. 2nd edn. Wiley.
  2. The probable error of a mean. Biometrica, 6, 1-24.


  1. Gore, S.M. (1981) Assessing methods - transforming the data. Brit. Med. J., 283, 548-550.
Back to top Back to top

Sampling and Estimation


  1. Altman, D.G. & Bland, J.M. (1997) Units of analysis. Brit. Med. J., 314, 1874. PubMed
  2. Barnett, V. (1974) Elements of Sampling Theory. Hodder and Stoughton.
  3. Cochran, W.G. (1977) Sampling Techniques. 3rd edn. Wiley.
  4. Gardner, M.J. & Altman, D.G, eds. (1989) Statistics with Confidence: Confidence Intervals and Statistical Guidelines. British Medical Journal.
  5. Kish, L. (1995) Survey Sampling. Wiley.
  6. Levy, P.S. & Lemeshow, S. (1999) Sampling of populations. Methods and applications. 3rd edn. Wiley.
  7. Moser, C.A. & Kalton, G. (1971) Survey Methods in Social Investigation. 2nd edn. Heinemann.
  8. Thompson SK (2002) Sampling. 2nd Edn Wiley
  9. Yates, F. (1981) Sampling Methods for Censuses and Surveys. 4th edn. Griffin.

Confidence intervals and estimation

  1. Altman D.G. (1998) Confidence intervals for the number needed to treat. Br. Med. J., 317, 1309-1312.
  2. Altman D, Trevor B, Gardner M & Machin, D (2000) Statistics with Confidence. 2nd Edn BMJ books.
  3. Efron, B. & Tibshirani, R. (1994) An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  4. Fagan, T. (1999) Exact 95% confidence intervals for differences in binomial proportions. Comput. Biol. Med., 29, 83-87. PubMed
  5. Newcombe, R.G. (1992) Confidence intervals: enlightening or mystefying. Brit. Med. J., 304, 381-382. PubMed
Back to top Back to top

Study design

General study design/experimental design

  1. Altman DG & Schulz KF (2001) Concealing treatment allocation in randomized trials BMJ 323:446-447.
  2. Altman DG & Bland JM (2003) Interaction revisited: the difference between two estimates BMJ; 326: 219.
  3. Cochran, W.G. (1960) Experimental Designs. Wiley.
  4. Cochran, W.G. & Cox, G.M. (1957) Experimental Designs. 2nd edn. Wiley.
  5. Cox, D.R. (1958) Planning of Experiments. Wiley.
  6. Cox DR & Reid N (2000) The Theory and Design of Experiments. Chapman and Hall/CRC.
  7. Cox, D.R. & Solomon, P.J. (2003) Components of Variance. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  8. Fisher, R.A (1951) Design of Experiments 6th edn. Oxford University Press.
  9. Kuehl, R. (2000) Design of Experiments: Statistical Principles of Research Design Analysis, 2nd edn. Brooks/Cole.
  10. Lindman, H.R. (1991) Analysis of Variance in Experimental Design. Springer-Verlag.
  11. Marriott, F.H.C. (1974) The Interpretation of Multiple Observations. Academic Press.
  12. Miller, S. (1989) Experimental Design and Statistics 2nd edn. Routledge.
  13. Montgomery, D.C. (1991) Design and Analysis of Experiments 3rd edn. Wiley.
  14. Weber DC & Skillings JH (2000) A First Course in the Design of Experiments. A Linear Models Approach Chapman and Hall/CRC

General epidemiology

  1. Clayton, D. & Hills. M. (1993) Statistical Models in Epidemiology. Oxford University Press.
  2. Coggan, P., Rose, G. & Barker, D.J.P. (1997) Epidemiology for the Uninitiated. 4th edn. BMJ Publishing Group.
  3. Farmer, R.D.T., Lawrenson, R. & Miller, D. (1996) Lecture Notes on Epidemiology and Public Health Medicine. 4th edn. Blackwell Science.
  4. Gerstman, B.B. (1998) Epidemiology Kept Simple: an Introduction to Classic and Modern Epidemiology. Wiley.
  5. Hill, A.B. (1965) The environment and disease: association or causation? Proc. R.Soc. Med., 58, 295.
  6. Jewell, N.P. (2004) Statistics for Epidemiology. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  7. Last, J.M, ed. (1995) A Dictionary of Epidemiology. Oxford University Press.
  8. Lilienfield, D.E. (1994) Foundations of Epidemiology. 3rd edn. Oxford University Press.
  9. Mitchell HG & Benischou J (eds) (2000) Encyclopedia of Epidemiologic Methods Wiley
  10. Newman SC (2001) Biostatistical Methods in Epidemiology Wiley.
  11. Silman, A.J. & Macfarlane G.J. (2002) Epidemiological Studies: A Practical Guide 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press.
  12. Woodward, M. (1999) Epidemiology Study Design and Data Analysis. Chapman & Hall.

Clinical trials

  1. Altman DG (2002) Poor Quality Medical Research. What Can Journals Do? JAMA 287 2765-2767
  2. Altman DG, Schulz KF, Moher D, Egger M, Davidoff F, Elbourne D, Getzsche PC & Lang T (2001). The revised CONSORT statement for reporting randomized trials: explanation and elaboration. Annals of Internal Medicine 134:663-694.
  3. Armitage P (2001) Theory and practice in medical statistics Statistics in Medicine 20 2537-2548
  4. Armitage, P. (1975) Sequential Medical Trials. 2nd edn. Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  5. Armitage, P. (1998) Attitudes in clinical trials. Stat. Med., 18, 2675-2683. PubMed
  6. Assmann SF, Pocock SJ, Enos LE & Kasten LE (2000) Subgroup analysis and other (mis)uses of baseline data in clinical trials Lancet 355 1064-1069
  7. Begg, C.B. & Berlin, J.A. (1988) Publication bias: a problem in interpreting medical data. J. Roy. Stat. Soc. A., 151, 419-463.
  8. Begg, C., Cho, M., Eastwood, S. et al. (1996) Improving the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials. The CONSORT Statement. J.Am. Med. Assoc., 276, 63-65.
  9. Bulpitt C (1996) Randomised Controlled Clinical Trials. 2nd Edn Kluwer Academic Publishers
  10. Chow, S.C & Liu, J.P. (1998) Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials: Concept and Methodologies. Wiley.
  11. D'Agostino RB Sr., Massaro JM & Sullivan LM (2003). Non-inferiority trials: design concepts andissues - the encounters of academic consultants in statistics. Statistics in Medicine 22: 169-186.
  12. Day SJ & Altman DG(2000) Blinding in clinical trials and other studies BMJ 321:504
  13. Day, S. (1999) Dictionary of Clinical Trials. Wiley.
  14. DeAngelis, C.D., Drazen, M., Frizelle, F.A. et al. (2005) Clinical trial registration. A statement from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. JAMA, 292, 1363-4.
  15. 15. Duley, L. & Farrell, B. (eds) (2002) Clinical Trials. BMJ Books.
  16. Ellenberg S & Fleming T (2002) Data Monitoring Committees in Clinical Trials. A Practical Perspective Wiley
  17. Everitt BS & Pickles A (1999) Statistical Aspects of the Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials Imperial College Press.
  18. Fairclough, D.I. (2002) Design and Analysis of Quality of Life Studies in Clinical Trials. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  19. Fleiss, J.L. (1999) The Design and Analysis of Clinical Experiments. Wiley.
  20. Friedman, L.M., Furberg, C.D., & Demets, D. (1998) Fundamentals of Clinical Trials. 3rd edn. Springer Verlag.
  21. Garret, A.D. (2003) Therapeutic equivalence: fallacies and falsification. Stat. Med., 22, 741-762.
  22. Geller, N.L. (2004) Advances in Clinical Trial Biostatics. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  23. Green, S., Benedetti, J., & Crowley, J. (1998) Clinical Trials in Oncology. 3rd edn. Chapman Hall.
  24. Gross, C.P., Mallory, R., Heiat, A. & Krumholz, H.M. (2002) Reporting the recruitment process in clinical trials: who are these patients and how did they get there? Ann. Intern. Med., 137, 10-16.
  25. John, B., Jarvis, P., Lewis, J.A. & Ebbut, A.F. (1996) Trials to assess equivalence: the importance of rigorous methods, Br. Med. J., 313, 36-39.
  26. Jones B & Kenward MG (2003) Design and Analysis of Cross-Over Trials. 2nd Edn Chapman and Hall/CRC.
  27. Juni P, Altman DG & Egger M (2001) Assessing the quality of controlled clinical trials BMJ 323 42-46.
  28. Kerry, S.M. & Bland, J.M. (1998) Sample size in cluster randomisation. Brit. Med. J., 316, 549. PubMed
  29. Laupacis A (2002) The Cochrane Collaboration - how is it progressing? Statistics in Medicine 21 2815-2822
  30. Matthews, JNS (2000) Introduction to Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials. Arnold.
  31. Meinert, C.L. (1986) Clinical Trials. Design, Conduct and Analysis. Oxford University Press.
  32. Moher D, Shultz KF & Altman DG (2001) The CONSORT Statement: Revised Recommendations for Improving the Quality of Reports of Parallel-Group Randomized Trials Annals of Internal Medicine 134 657-662
  33. Moher Schulz, K.F., Altman, D.G., & Lepage, L. (2001) "The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomised trials"> 3rd edn. Lancet 357 1191-1194.
  34. Newell, D.J. (1992) Intention-to-treat analysis: implications for quantitative and qualitative research. Int. J.Epidemiol., 21, 837-841. PubMed
  35. Peto, R., Pike, M.C., Armitage, P etet alnbsp;al. (1997) Design and analysis of randomised clinical trials requiring prolonged observation of each patient: II analysis and examples. Brit. J.Cancer., 35, 1-39.
  36. Piantadosi, S. (1997) Clinical Trials: A Methodologic Perspective. Wiley.
  37. Pocock SJ, Assmann SE, Enos LE & Kasten LE (2002) Subgroup analysis, covariate adjustment and baseline comparisons in clinical trial reporting: current practice and problems Statistics in Medicine 21 2917-2930
  38. Pocock, S.J. (1983) Clinical Trials: A Practical Approach. Wiley.
  39. Redmond CK & Colton T (eds) (2001) Biostatistics in Clinical Trials Wiley
  40. Rogers, J., Wood, J., McCandish, R., Ayers, S., Truesdale, A. & Elbourne, D. (1998) Active versus expectant management of third stage of labour: the Hinchingbrooke randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 351, 693-699. PubMed
  41. Rosenberger, W.F. & Lachin, J.M. (2002) Randomization in Clinical Trials: Theory and Practice. Wiley.
  42. Schwartz, D., Flamant, R. & Lellouch, J. (1980) Clinical Trials. Academic Press.
  43. Senn S (2002) Cross-over Trials in Clinical Research. 2nd Edn Wiiley
  44. Senn, S. (1997) Statistical Issues in Drug Development. Wiley.
  45. 45. Twisk, J. & Proper, K. (2004) Evaluation of the results of a ranomized controlled trial: how to define changes between baseline and follow-up. J. Clin. Epidemiol., 57, 223-228.
  46. Vickers AJ & Altman DG (2001). Analysing controlled trials with baseline and follow up measurements. BMJ 323 1123-1124.

Cohort studies

  1. Breslow, N.E. & Day, N.E. (1980) Statistical Methods in Cancer Research, I - The Analysis of Case-control Studies. International Agency for Cancer Research.
  2. Grimes, D.A. & Schulz, K.F. (2002) Bias and causal associations in observational research. Lancet, 359, 248-252.
  3. Grimes, D.A. & Schulz, K.F. (2002) Cohort studies: marching towards outcomes. Lancet, 359, 341-45.
  4. Gurwitz, J.H., Sykora, K., Mamdani, M. et al. (2005) Readerís guide to critical appraisal of cohort studies: 1. Role and design. Br. Med. J., 330, 895-897.
  5. Lachin, P. (2000) Biostatistical Methods: The Assessment of Relative Risks. Wiley.
  6. MacMahon, S. & Collins, R. (2001). Reliable assessment of the effects of treatment on mortality and major morbidity, II: observational studies. Lancet, 357, 455-462.
  7. Phillips, A.N., Wannamethee, S.G., Walker, M., Thomson, A. & Smith, G.D. (1996) Life expectancy in men who have never smoked and those who have smoked continuously: 15 year follow-up of large cohort of middle-aged British men. Br. Med. J., 313, 807-908. PubMed.
  8. Tooth, L., Ware, R., Bain, C., Purdie, D.M. & Dobson, A. (2005) Quality of reporting of observational longitudinal research. Am. J. Epidemiol., 161, 280-288.

Case-control studies

  1. Altman, D.G. & Bland, J.M. (2000) The odds ratio.Br. Med. J., 320, 1468.
  2. Breslow, N.E. & Day, N.E. (1980) Statistical Methods in Cancer Research, I - The Analysis of Case-control Studies. International Agency for Cancer Research.
  3. Grimes, D.A. & Schulz, K.F. (2005) Compared to what? Finding controls for case-control studies, Lancet, 365, 1429-1433.
  4. Michaelsson, K., Baron, J.A., Farahmand, B.Y. et al. (1998) Hormone replacement therapy and risk of hip fracture: population based case-control study. Br. Med. J., 316, 1858-1863. PubMed.
  5. Schlesselman, J.J. (1982) Case Control Studies. Oxford University Press.
Back to top Back to top

Hypothesis testing

  1. Bender R & Lange S (2001). Adjusting for multiple testing - when and how? Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 54: 343-349.
  2. Gore, S.M., Jones, I.G. & Rytter, E.C. (1977) Misuse of statistical methods: critical assessment of articles in BMJ from January to March 1976. Brit. Med J., 1, 85-87. PubMed
  3. Hochberg, Y. & Tamhane, A.C. (1987) Multiple Comparison Procedures. Wiley.
  4. Rushton, G. (2000) Reporting of occupational and environmental research: use and misuse of statistical and epidemiological methods. Occup. Environ. Med., 57, 1-9. PubMed
  5. Sterne JAC (2002). Teaching hypothesis tests - time for significant change? Statistics in Medicine 21: 985-994.
  6. Sterne JAC & Davey Smith G (2001). Sifting the evidence - what's wrong with significance tests? BMJ 322: 226-231.
  7. Wellek S (2003) Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence Chapman and Hall/CRC
Back to top Back to top

Basic techniques for analysing data

Non-parametric tests

  1. Hollander, M. & Wolfe, D.A. (1999) Nonparametric Statistical Methods. 2nd edn. Wiley.
  2. Siegel, S. & Castellan, N.J. (1988) Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill.
  3. Sprent P & Smeeton NC (2001) Applied Nonparametric Statistical Methods. 3rd Edn Chapman and Hall/CRC

Specific hypothesis tests

  1. Bonate PL (2000) Analysis of Pretest-Posttest Designs Chapman and Hall/CRC
  2. Christensen, R. (1996) Analysis of Variance. Design and Regression. Chapman & Hall.
  3. Doull, I.J.M., Lampe, F.C., Smith, S. et al. (1997) Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on episodes of wheezing associated with viral infection in school age children: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Brit. Med. J., 315, 858-862. PubMed
  4. Duffy, S. (1997) Results of a three year longitudinal study of early periodontitis in a group of British male adolescents. MSc Dissertation. University of London.
  5. Gardiner, W.P. & Gettinby, G. (1998) Experimental Design Techniques in Statistical Practice. Horwood Publishing.
  6. Hoaglin, D.C., Mosteller, F. & Tukey, J.W. (1991) Fundamentals of Exploratory Analysis of Variance. Wiley.
  7. Hsu, J.C. (1996) Multiple comparisons - theory and methods. Chapman & Hall.
  8. Kadir, R., Economides, D.L., Sabin, C.A., Owens, D. & Lee, C.A. (1998) Frequency of inherited bleeding disorders in women with menorrhagia. Lancet, 351, 485-489. PubMed.
  9. Mickey, R.M., Dunn, O.J. & Clark, V.A. (2004) Applied Statistics: Analysis of Variance and Regression 3rd edn. Wiley.
  10. Miners, A.H., Sabin, C.A., Tolley, K.H., Jenkinson, C., Ebrahim, S. & Lee, C.A. (1999) Assessing health-related quality-of-life in patients with severe haemophilia A and B. Psych. Health. Med., 4, 5-15.
  11. Scheffé, H. (1999) The Analysis of Variance. Wiley.
  12. Synek, M., Anto, J.M., Beasley, R. et al. (1996) Immunopathology of fatal soybean dust-induced asthma. Eur. Resp. J., 9, 54-57.

Multivariate analysis

  1. Afifi, A.A. & Clark, V. (1998) Computer-Aided Multivariate Analysis 3rd edn. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  2. Barnet, V. (1981) Interpreting Multivariate Data. John Wiley.
  3. Brayn, F. & Manly, J. (1994) Multivariate Statistical Methods 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  4. Chatfield, C. & Collins, A.J. (1981) Introduction to Multivariate Analysis Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  5. Diez Roux, A.V. (2002) A glossary for multilevel analysis. J. Epidemiol. Comm. Health, 56, 588-594.
  6. Dillon, W.R. & Goldstein, M. (1984) Multivariate Analysis. Wiley.
  7. Everitt, B.S. & Dunn, G. (2000) Applied Multivariate Data Analysis 2nd edn. Arnold.
  8. Hair, J., Anderson, R., Tatham, R. & Black, W. (1995) Multivariate Data Analysis 4th edn. Prentice Hall.
  9. Johnson, R.A. & Wichern, D.W. (1998) Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis 4th edn. Prentice Hall.
  10. Kendall , M.G. (1980) Multivariate Analysis2nd edn. Griffin.
  11. Krzanowski, W. (2000) Principles of Multivariate Analysis: A User’s Perspsective. Oxford University Press.
  12. Krzanowski, W.J. & Marriott, F.H. (1994) Multivariate Analysis. Part 1. Distributions, Ordination and Inference. Hodder Arnold.
  13. Krzanowski, W.J. & Marriott, F.H. (1995) Multivariate Analysis. Part 2. Classification, Covariance Structures and Repeated Measurements. Hodder Arnold.
  14. Manly, B.F.J. (1986) Multivariate Statistical Methods: A Primer. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  15. Mardia, K.V., Kent, J.T. & Bibby, J.M. (1979) Multivariate Analysis. Academic Press.
  16. Raab, G.M. & Parpia, T. (2001) Random effects models for HIV marker data: practical approaches with currently available software. Stat. Meth. Med. Res., 10, 101-116.
  17. Sharma, Sibhash. (1996) Applied Multivariate Techniques. John Wiley.
  18. Tabachnick, B.G. & Fidell, L.S. (2001) Using Multivariate Statistics (4th edition). Allyn and Bacon.
  19. Wulder, M. (2002) A Practical Guide to the Use of Selected Multivariate Statistics. Canadian Forest Service.

Testing proportions

  1. Agresti, A. (1996) An Introduction to Categorical Data Analysis. Wiley.
  2. Dewhurst, G., Wood, D.A., Walker, F. et al. (1991) A population survey of cardiovascular disease in elderly people: Design, methods and prevalence results. Age. Ageing., 20, 353-360. PubMed
  3. Everitt, B.S. (1992) The Analysis of Contingency Tables. Chapman & Hall.
  4. Fleiss, J.L. (1981) Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions. 2nd edn. Wiley.
  5. Kurtiz, S.J., Landis, J.R. & Koch, G.G. (1988) A general overview of Mantel-Haenszel methods: applications and recent developments. Ann. Rev. Pub. Health 9, 123-160.
  6. Radcliffe, M.J., Lampe, F.C. & Brostoff, J. (1996) Allergen-specific low-dose immunotherapy in perennial allergic rhinitis: a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. J.Investig. Allerg. Clin. Immunol., 6, 242-247.

Correlation and regression

  1. Chatterjee, S. & Price, B. (1999) Regression Analysis by Example. 3rd edn. Wiley.
  2. Draper, N.R. & Smith, H. (1981) Applied Regression Analysis. 2nd edn. Wiley.
  3. Kahane LH (2001) Regression Basics Sage.
  4. Miller, A. (2002) Subset Selection in Regression 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  5. Montgomery DC, Peck EA & Vining GG (2000) Introduction to Linear Regression Analysis Wiley
  6. Schroeder, L.D., Sjoquist, D.L. & Stephan, P.E. (1986) Understanding Regression Analysis: an Introductory Guide. In. Sage University Paper series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, series no. 07-057. Sage University Press.
  7. Whincup, P.H., Cook, D.G., Papacosta, O. & Walker, M. (1992) Childhood blood pressure, body build and birth weight: geographical associations with cardiovascular mortality. J.Epidemiol. Comm. Health, 46, 396-402.

Regression to the mean

  1. Galton, F. (1886) Regression towards mediocrity in hereditary stature. J.Anthropol. Inst., 15, 246-263.
  2. Morton V & Torgerson DJ (2003) Effect of regression to the mean on decision making in health care BMJ 326 1083-1084

Logistic regression

  1. Bagley , S.C. , White, H., & Golomb, B.A. (2001). Logistic regression in the medical literature: standards for use and reporting, with particular attention to one medical domain. Journal of Clin. Epidem., 54, 979-985.
  2. Bland, J.M. & Altman, D.G. (2000). The odds ratio. Br. Med. J., 320, 1468.
  3. Hosmer, D.W. & Lemeshow, S. (2000) Applied Logistic Regression 2nd edn. Wiley.
  4. Kleinbaum, D.G. & Klein, M. (2002) Logistic Regression: A Self Learning Text 2nd edn. Springer.
  5. Menard, S. (1995) Applied Logistic Regression Analysis. In. Sage University Paper series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, series no. 07-106. Sage Publications.
  6. Pampel, F.C. (2000) Logistic Regression: A Primer. Sage Publications.
  7. Steyerberg, E.W., Harrell, F.E. Jr, Borsboom, G.J.J.M., Eijkemans, M.J.C., Vergouwe, Y. & Habbema, J.D.F. (2001). Internal validation of predictive models: Efficiency of some procedures for logistic regression analysis. J. Clin. Epidemiol., 54, 774-781.

Statistical Modelling: see also Clustered Data/ Repeated measures

  1. Altman, D.G. & Royston, P. (2000). What do we mean by validating a prognostic model? Stat. Med., 19, 453-473. PubMed.
  2. Bland, J.M. & Altman, D.G. (2002) Validating scales and indexes.Br. Med. J., 324, 606-607.
  3. Bleeker, S.E., Moll, H.A., Steyerberg, E.W. et al. (2003) External validation is neccisary, in prediction research: a clinical example. J. Clin. Epidemiol., 826-832.
  4. Collet, D. (2003) Modelling Binary Data 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  5. Dobson, A.J. (2002) An Introduction to Generalized Linear Models 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  6. Dupont, W.D. (2002) Statistical Modeling for Biomedical Researchers: A Simple Introduction to the Analysis of Complex Data. Cambridge University Press.
  7. Gilthorpe, M.S., Griffiths, G.S., Maddick, I.H. & Zamzuri, A.T. (1999) The application of multilevel modeling to periodontal research.Community Dental Health, 17, 227-235.
  8. Goldstein, H., Browne, W. & Rasbash, J. (2002) Multilevel modeling of medical data.Stat. Med.,21, 3291-3315.
  9. Harrel Jun, F.E. (2001) Regression Modeling Strategies with Applications to Linear Models, Logistic Regression and Survival Analysis. Springer-Verlag.
  10. Hastie, T.J. & Tibshiriani. (1990) Generalized Additive Models. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  11. Hoffman, J.P. (2004) Generalized Linear Models: An Applied Approach. Pearson.
  12. Katz, M.H. (2003) Multivariable analysis: a primer for readers of medical research. Ann. Intern. Med., 138, 644-650.
  13. Kreft, I.G.G. & de Leeuw, J. (1998) Introducing Multilevel Modeling . Sage.
  14. Leylan, A.H. & Goldstein, H. (2001) Multilevel Modelling of Health Statistics . Wiley.
  15. May, M., Royston, P., Egger, M., Justice, A.C. & Sterne, J.A.C. (2004) Development and validation of a prognostic model for survival time data: application to prognosis of HIV positive patients treated with antiretroviral therapy. Stat. Med., 23, 2375-98.
  16. Mocroft, A.J., Johnson, M.A., Sabin, C.A. et al. (1995) Staging system for clinical AIDS patients. Lancet, 346, 12-17. PubMed.
  17. Snijders, T. & Bosker, R. (1999) Multilevel Analysis: An Introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modelling. Sage Publications.
  18. Sullivan, L.M., Massaro, J.M. & D’Agostino, R.B. (2004) Presentation of multivariate data for clinical use: The Framingham Study risk score functions. Stat. Med., 23, 1631-1660.
  19. Wong, M.Y., Day, N.E., Bashir, S.A. & Duffy, S.W. (1999) Measurement error in epidemiology: the design of validation studies I: univariate situation. Stat. Med., 18, 2815-2829. PubMed.
  20. Wong, M.Y., Day, N.E. & Wareham, N.J. (1999) Measurement error in epidemiology: the design of validation studies II: bivariate situation. Stat. Med., 18, 2831-2845. PubMed.

Assessing assumptions

  1. Desu MM & Raghavarao D (1990) Sample Size Methodology Academic Press
  2. Hart, A. (2000) Towards better research: a discussion of some common mistakes in statistical analyses. Comp. Ther. Med., 8, 37-42. PubMed

Sample size calculation

  1. Altman, D.G. (1982) How large a sample?. In: Statistics in Practice S.M. Gore & D.G. Altman (eds). BMA.
  2. Amir, J., Haral, L., Smettana, Z. & Varsano, I. (1997) Treatment of herpes simplex gingiostomatitis with aciclovir in children: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. Br. Med. J., 314, 1800-1803. PubMed.
  3. Campbell, M.J., Julious, S.A. & Altman, D.G. (1995) Estimating sample sizes for binary, ordered categorical, and continuous outcomes in two group comparisons. Br. Med. J., 311, 1145-1145. PubMed.
  4. Cohen, J. (1988) Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences2nd edn. Laurence Erlbaum Associates.
  5. Donner, A. (1984) Approaches to sample size estimation in the design of clinical trials. Stat. Med., 3, 199-214. PubMed.
  6. Julious , S.A. (2004) Tutorial in Biostatics: Sample sizes of clinical trials with Normal data. Stat. Med., 23, 1921-1986.
  7. Lehr, R. (1992) Sixteen S squared over D squared: a relation for crude sample size estimates. Stat. Med., 11, 1099-1102. PubMed.
  8. Machin, D., Campbell, M.J., Fayers, P.M. & Pinol, A.P.Y. (1997) Sample Size Tables for Clinical Studies2nd edn. Blackwell Science.
  9. van der Windt, D.A.W.M., Koes, B.W., Devillé, W., de Jong, B.A. & Bouter, M. (1998) Effectiveness of corticosteroid injections with physiotherapy for treatment of painful shoulder in primary care: randomised trial. Br. Med. J., 317, 1292-1296. PubMed.
  10. Wittes, J. (2002) Sample size calculations for randomized controlled trials. Epidemiol. Rev., 24, 39-53.

Back to top Back to top

Additional Topics

Diagnostic tests

  1. Begg, C.B. (1987) Biases in the assessment of diagnostic tests. Stat. Med., 6, 411-423. PubMed
  2. Duffy S, Esteve J & Hill C (1999) Quantitative Methods for the Evaluation of Cancer Screening Arnold
  3. Gor, D., Sabin, C., Prentice, H.G. et al. (1998) Longitudinal fluctuations in cytomegalovirus load in bone marrow transplant patients: relationship between peak virus load, donor/recipient status, acute GVHD and CMV disease. Bone. Marr. Trans., 21, 597-605.
  4. Greenhouse, S.W. & Mantel, N. (1950) The evaluation of diagnostic tests. Biometrics, 6, 399-412.
  5. Wald, N. & Cuckle, H. (1989) Reporting the assessment of screening and diagnostic tests. Brit. J. Obs. Gynae., 96, 389-396. PubMed

Measuring agreement

  1. Bland, J.M. & Altman, D.G. (1986) Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet, i, 307-310.
  2. Bland, J.M. & Altman, D.G. (1990) A note on the use of the intraclass correlation coefficient in the evaluation of agreement between two methods of measurement. Comput. Biol. Med., 20, 337-340. PubMed.
  3. Bland, J.M. & Altman, D.G. (1999) Measuring agreement in method comparison studies. Stat. Meth. Med. Res., 8, 135-160. PubMed.
  4. Chinn, S. (1990) The assessment of methods of measurement. Stat. Med., 9, 351-362. PubMed.
  5. Chmura Kraemer, H., Periyakoil, V.S. & Noda, A. (2002) Kappa coefficients in medical research. Stat. Med., 21, 2109-2129.
  6. Cohen, J. (1960) A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educ. Psychol. Meas., 20, 37-46.
  7. Cohen, J. (1968) Weighted kappa: nominal scale ageement with provision for scale disagreement or partial credit. Pyschol. Bull., 70, 213-220.
  8. Haas, M. (1991) Statistical methodology for reliability studies. J. Manip. Physiol. Ther., 14, 119-132. PubMed.
  9. Kraemer, H.C., Periyakoil, V.S. & Noda, A. (2001) Kappa coefficients in medical research. Stat. Med., 21, 2109-2129.
  10. Landis, J.R. & Koch, G.C. (1977) The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159-174. PubMed.
  11. Rousson, V., Gasser ,T .& Seifert, B. (2002) Assessing intrarater, interrater and test-retest reliability of continuous measurements. Stat. Med., 21, 3431-3446.
  12. Shoukri, M. (2003) Measurement of Agreement for Categorical Data. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  13. Shoukri, M. (2003) Measures of Interobserver Agreement. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  14. Streiner, D.R. & Norman, G.L. (2003) Health Measurement Scales: A Practical Guide to their Development and Use 3rd edn. Oxford University Press.

Evidence-based Medicine

  1. Bero, L. & Rennie, D. (1995) The Cochrane Collaboration. Preparing, maintaining, and disseminating systematic reviews of the effects of health care. J.Am. Med. Assoc., 274, 1935-38.
  2. Bland JM & Peacock J (2000) Statistical Questions in Evidence-based Medicine Oxford University Press
  3. Dunn, G. & Everitt, B. (1995) Clinical Biostatistics. An Introduction to Evidence Based Medicine. Edward Arnold.
  4. Elward, J.M. (1997) Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials. Oxford University Press.
  5. Evidence-based medicine. A new approach to teaching the practice of medicine. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 268, 2420-2425.
  6. Greenhalgh, T. & Taylor, R. (1997) Assessing the methodological quality of published papers. Brit. Med. J., 315, 305-308. PubMed
  7. Sackett, D.L. & Rosenberg, W.M. (1995) The need for evidence-based medicine. J. Roy. Soc. Med., 88, 620-624.
  8. Sackett, D.L., Rosenberg, W.M., Gray, J.A., Haynes, R.B. & Richardson, W.S. (1996) Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't. Brit. Med. J., 312, 71-72. PubMed
  9. Sackett, D.L., Richardson, W.S., Rosenberg, W. & Haynes, R.B. (1997) Evidence Based Medicine. How to Practice and Teach EBM. Churchill Livingstone.

Systematic reviews and meta analysis

  1. Chalmers, I. & Altman, D.G (eds) (1995) Systematic Reviews. BMJ Publishing Group.
  2. Egger, M., Davey-Smith., Altman, D.G. (eds) (2001) Systematic Reviews in Health Care. Meta-analysis in Context 2nd edn of Systematic Reviews. BMJ Publications.
  3. Elphick, H.E., Tan, D., Ashby, D. & Smyth, R.L. (2002) Systematic reviews and lifelong diseases. Br. Med. J., 325, 381-384.
  4. Fleiss, J.L. (1993) The statistical basis of meta-analysis. Stat. Meth. Med. Res., 2, 121-145. PubMed.
  5. Freemantle, N., Mason, J. & Eccles, M. (1999) Deriving treatment recommendations from evidence from randomized trials. The role and limitation of meta-analysis. Int. J.Technol. Assess. Health. Care., 15, 304-315. PubMed.
  6. Glasziou, P.P. & Sanders, S.L. (2002) Investigating causes of heterogeneity in systematic reviews.Stat. Med., 21, 1503-1511.
  7. Greenhalgh, T. (1997) Papers that summarise other papers (systematic reviews and meta-analyses). Br. Med. J., 315, 672-675. PubMed.
  8. Higgins, P.T., Thompson, S.G., Deeks, J.J. & Altman, D.G. (2003) Measuring inconsistency in meta-analysis. Br. Med. J., 327, 557-560.
  9. Houwelingen, H.C. van., Arends, L.R. & Stijnen, T. (2002) Advanced methods in meta-analysis: multivariate approach and meta-regression.Stat. Med.,21, 589-624.
  10. Leandro, G. (2005) Meta-analysis in Medical Research. BMJ Books, Blackwell Publishing.
  11. Normand, S.L.T. (1999) Meta-analysis: formulating, evaluating, combining and reporting. Stat. Med., 18, 321-359. PubMed.
  12. Oakes, M. (1993) The logic and role of meta-analysis in clinical research Stat. Meth. Med. Res., 2, 147-160.
  13. Pocock, S.J., Henderson, R.A., Rickards, A.F. et al. (1995) A meta-analysis of randomised trials comparing coronary angioplasty with bypass surgery. Lancet, 346, 1184-1189. PubMed.
  14. Stangl, D. & Berry, D.A. (2000) Meta-analysis in Medicine and Health Policy Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  15. Stroup, D.F., Berlin, J.A., Morton, al. (2000) Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: A proposal for reporting. JAMA, 283, 2008-2012.
  16. Sutton, A., Abrams, K., Sheldon, T.A. & Song, F. (2000) Methods for Meta-Analysis in Medical Research . Wiley.
  17. Sutton, A.J., Abrams, K.R., Jones, D.R., Sheldon, T.A. & Song, F. (2000) Methods for Meta-Analysis in Medical Research. Wiley.
  18. Thompson, S.G. & Higgins, J.P.T. (2002) How should meta-regression analyses be undertaken and interpreted? Stat. Med.21, 1559-1573.
  19. Whitehead, A. (2002) Meta-Analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials.Wiley.

Clustered data/repeated measures: see also statistical modeling

  1. Aerts, M., Molenberghs, G., Greys, H. & Ryan, L.M. (eds) (2002) Topics in Modelling of Clustered Data. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  2. Albert, P. (1999) Longitudinal data analysis (repeated measures) in clinical trials. Stat. Med., 18, 1707-1732. PubMed.
  3. Bryk, A.S. & Randenbush, S.W. (2002) Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis 2nd edn. Sage Publications.
  4. Carr, G.J. & Chi, E.M. (1992) Analysis of variance for repeated measures. Data: a generalized estimating equations approach. Stat. Med., 11, 1033-1040. PubMed.
  5. Collins, L.M. & Sayer, A.G. (eds) (2001) New Methods for the Analysis of Change. American Psychological Association.
  6. Crowder, M.J & Hand, D.J. (1990) Analysis of Repeated Measures. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  7. Davis , C.S. (2002) Statistical Methods for the Analysis of Repeated Measures. Springer-Verlag
  8. Ditlevsen, S., Ghristensen, U., Lynch, J., Damsgaard, M.T. & Keiding, N. (2005) The mediation proportion. A structural equation approach for estimating the proportion of exposure effect on outcome explained by an intermediate variable. Epidemiology, 16, 114-120.
  9. Diggle, P. (2002) Analysis of Longitudinal Data 2nd edn. Oxford University Press.
  10. Donner, A. & Klar, N. (2000) Design and Analysis of Cluster Randomization Trials in Health Research . Arnold.
  11. Everitt, B.S. (1995) The analysis of repeated measures: a practical review with examples. Statistician, 44, 113-135.
  12. Goldstein, H. (2003) Multilevel Statistical Models 3rd edn. Kendall Library of Statistics. Arnold.
  13. Goldstein, H. (1995) Multilevel Statistical Models2nd edn. Edward Arnold.
  14. Goldstein, H., Browne, W. & Rasbash, J. (2002) Multilevel modelling of medical data. Stat. Med., 21, 3291-3315.
  15. Hanley, J.A., Negassa, A., Edwardes, & Forrester, J.E. (2003) Statistical analysis of correlated data using generalized estimating equations: An orientation. Am. J. Epidemiol., 157, 364-375.
  16. Hardin, J.W. & Hilbe, Jm. (2003) Generalized Estimating Equations. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  17. Kenward, M.G. (2002) Analysis of Repeated Measurements . Oxford University Press.
  18. Lindsey, J.K. (1999) Models for Repeated Measurements . Oxford University Press.
  19. Longford, N.T. (1994) Random Coefficient Models. Oxford University Press.
  20. Matthews, J.N.S., Altman, D.G., Campbell, M.J. & Royston, P. (1990) Analysis of serial measurements in medical research. Br. Med. J., 300, 230-235. PubMed.
  21. Naumova, E.N., Must, A. & Laird, N.M. (2001). Tutorial in biostatistics: evaluating the impact of 'critical periods' in longitudinal studies of growth using piecewise mixed effects models. Int. J. Epidemiol., 30, 1332-1341.
  22. Omar, R.Z., Wright, E.M., Turner, R.M. & Thompson, S.G. (1999) Analysing repeated measurements data: a practical comparison of methods. Stat. Med., 18, 1587-1603. PubMed.
  23. Rouz, A.V.D. (2002). A glossary for multilevel analysis. J. Epidemiol. Comm. Health, 56, 588-594.
  24. Senn, S., Stevens, L. & Chaturvedi, N. (2000) Repeated measures in clinical trials: simple strategies for analysis using summary measures. Stat. Med., 19, 861-877. PubMed.
  25. Sullivan, L.S., Dukes, K.A. & Losina, E. (1999) An introduction to hierarchical linear modelling Stat. Med., 18, 855-888. PubMed .
  26. Taylor , R.G., Maclagan, J. & Cook, D.G. (1989) Bronchodilator action of inhaled fenoterol and ipratropium in normal subjects: a teaching exercise for medical students. Br. J. Clin. Pharmac., 28, 709-713.

Survival analysis

  1. Bradburn, M.J., Clark, T.G., Love, S.B. & Altman, D.G. (2003) Survival Analysis Part II: Multivariate data analysis - an introduction to concepts and methods. Br. J. Cancer, 89, 431-436.
  2. Bradburn, M.J., Clark, T.G., Love, S.B. & Altman, D.G. (2003) Survival Analysis Part III: Multivariate data analysis - choosing a model and assessing its adequacy. Br. J. Cancer, 89, 605-611.
  3. Bull, K. & Spiegelhalter, D.S. (1997) Survival analysis in observational studies. Stat. Med., 16, 1041-1074. PubMed.
  4. Clark , T.G., Bradburn, M.J., Love, S.B. & Altman, D.G. (2003) Survival Analysis Part I: Basic concepts and first analyses. Br. J. Cancer,89, 232-238.
  5. Clark , T.G., Bradburn, M.J., Love, S.B. & Altman, D.G. (2003) Survival Analysis Part IV: Further concepts and methods in survival analysis. Br. J. Cancer,89, 781-786
  6. Collet, D. (2003) Modelling Survival Data in Medical Research 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  7. Cox, D.R. & Oakes, D. (1984) Analysis of Survival Data. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  8. Hosmer, D.W., Jr. & Lemeshow, S. (1999) Applied Survival Analysis: Regression Modeling of Time to Event Data. Wiley.
  9. Kaplan, E.L. & Meier, P. (1958) Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. J. Am. Statist. Assoc., 53, 457-481.
  10. Kleinbaum, D.G. (1996) Survival Analysis: a Self-Learning Text. Springer.
  11. Marubini, E. & Valsecchi, M.G. (1995) Analysing Survival Data from Clinical Trials and Observational Studies. Wiley.
  12. Miller, R. (1998) Survival Analysis. Wiley.
  13. Ng'andu, N.H. (1997) An empirical comparison of statistical tests for assessing the proportional hazards assumption of Cox's model. Stat. Med., 16, 611-626. PubMed.
  14. Pamar, M.K.B. & Machin, D. (1995) Survival Analysis: a Practical Approach. Wiley.
  15. Pocock, S.J., Clayton, T.C. & Altman, D.G. (2002). Survival plots of time-to-event outcomes in clinical trials: good practice and pitfalls. Lancet, 359, 1686-1689.
  16. Smith, P.J. (2002) Analysis of Failure and Survival Data Chapman & Hall/CRC.

Bayesian methods

  1. Bernardo, J.M. & Smith, A.F. (2000) Bayesian Statistical Theory. Wiley.
  2. Bland, J.M. & Altman, D.G. (1998) Bayesians and frequentists. Brit. Med. J., 317, 1151. PubMed
  3. Box, G.E.P. & Tiao, G.C. (1992) Bayesian Inference in Statistical Analysis. Wiley.
  4. Breslow, N. (1990) Biostatistics and Bayes (with Discussion). Stat. Sci., 5, 269-298.
  5. Carlin BP & Louis TA (2000) Bayes and Empirical Bayes Methods for Data Analysis Chapman and Hall/CRC
  6. Congdon P (2001) Bayesian Statistical Modelling Wiley
  7. Freedman, L. (1996) Bayesian statistical methods. A natural way to assess clinical evidence. Brit. Med. J., 313, 569-570. PubMed
  8. French, S. & Smith, J.Q, eds (1997) The Practice of Bayesian Analysis. Wiley.
  9. Gelman, A., Carlin, J.B., Stern, H.S. & Rubin, D.B. (1995) Bayesian Data Analysis. Chapman & Hall.
  10. Gilthorpe MS, Maddick IH & Petrie A (2000) The application of Bayesian modeling in dental research Community Dental Health 17 218-221
  11. Kadane, J.B, ed. (1996) Bayesian Methods and Ethics in a Clinical Trial Design. Wiley.
  12. Lee, P. (1997) Bayesian Statistics: an Introduction. 2nd edn. Arnold.
  13. Lilford, R.J. & Braunholtz, D. (1996) The statistical basis of public policy: a paradigm shift is overdue. Brit. Med. J., 313, 603-607. PubMed
  14. Parmigiani G (2002) Modeling in Medical Decision Making. A Bayesian Approach Wiley
  15. Spiegelhalter D & Myles J (2003) Bayesian Approaches to Clinical Trials and Health-Care Evaluation Wiley
Back to top Back to top

Statistical Tables

  1. Geigy Scientific Tables, Vol. 2. 8th edn. Ciba-Geigy Ltd.
  2. Fisher, R.A. & Yates, F. (1963) Statistical Tables for Biological, Agricultural and Medical Research. 6th edn. Oliver and Boyd.
  3. Pearson, E.S. & Hartley, H.O. (1966) Biometrika Tables for Statisticians. 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press.
Back to top Back to top

Statistical Software

  1. Coakes, J.S. & Steed, L.G. (1996) SPSS for Windows. Analysis Without Anguish. Jacaranda Wiley Ltd.
  2. Der, G. & Everitt, B.S. (2002) Handbook of Statistical Analyses Using SAS 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  3. Elliot, R.J. (2000) Learning SAS in the Computer Lab 2nd edn. Duxbury.
  4. Gerber, S.B. (2005) Using SPSS for Windows: Data Analysis and Graphics. Springer.
  5. Hamilton , L.C. (2002) Statistics with STATA (Updated for version 7) . Duxbury Press.
  6. Hills, M. & de Stavola, B. (2002) A Short Introduction to STATA for Biostatistics . Timberlake Consultants Press.
  7. Kinnear, P.R. & Gray, D. (1994) SPSS for Windows Made Simple. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  8. Rabe-Hesketh, S. & Everitt, B. (2000) A Handbook of Statistical Analyses using STATA . Chapman & Hall/CRC.
Back to top Back to top